The role of titanium dioxide in coatingTime of issue : 2023- 05-30
Titanium dioxide is an important white pigment, which can be divided into plate titanium type, anatase type and rutile type, plate titanium type is very unstable. Compared with traditional white pigments such as lead white, zinc white, zinc barium white, titanium dioxide has a variety of excellent properties such as high refractive index, strong achromatic power, large hiding power, and harmlessness, and is known as a good white pigment. Used in coatings, plastics, chemical fibers, ceramics and other industries. Among them, the amount of paint is very large, accounting for about 57% of the total amount of titanium dioxide. So how is titanium dioxide applied to coatings?
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First, the role of titanium dioxide in coatings
The coating is mainly composed of four parts, such as film-forming substances, pigments, solvents and additives, and the pigments in the paint have a certain hiding power, which can not only cover the original color of the painted object, but also give the coating film a bright color, and realize the decorative effect of lighting and beautification. At the same time, the pigment is closely combined with the curing agent and the substrate, and is integrated, which can enhance the mechanical strength and adhesion of the coating film, prevent cracking or falling off, and can enhance the thickness of the coating film, prevent the penetration of ultraviolet rays or moisture, improve the anti-aging and durability of the coating film, and extend the service life of the coating film and the protected object.
Among the pigments, the amount of white pigment is very large, and the performance requirements of the coating for white pigment: (1) good whiteness; (2) Good grinding and wettability; (3) Good weather resistance; (4) Good chemical stability; (5) Small particle size, high hiding power and achromatic power, good opacity and gloss.
Titanium dioxide is a white pigment used in coatings, its output accounts for more than 70% of inorganic pigments, and the consumption accounts for 95.5% of the total consumption of white pigments. At present, about 60% of the world's titanium dioxide is used to manufacture various coatings, especially rutile titanium dioxide, most of which is consumed by the coating industry. Coatings made of titanium dioxide, bright color, high hiding power, strong coloring power, saving dosage, many varieties, protect the stability of the medium, and can enhance the mechanical strength and adhesion of the paint film, prevent cracks, prevent ultraviolet rays and moisture penetration, prolong the life of the paint film, and the color matching of almost every pattern in the colorful pattern paint is inseparable from titanium dioxide.
Different kinds of coatings for different uses have different requirements for titanium dioxide, such as powder coatings require rutile titanium dioxide with good dispersion. Anatase titanium dioxide has low achromatic power, strong photochemical activity, used in powder coatings, and the coating film is prone to yellowing. The rutile titanium dioxide produced by the sulfuric acid method has the advantages of moderate price, good dispersion, good hiding power and achromatic power, etc., and is very suitable for indoor powder coating. In addition to good dispersion, hiding power and color elimination power, titanium dioxide for outdoor powder coating also requires good weathering, so the rutile titanium dioxide produced by the general chlorination method of titanium powder for outdoor powder coating.
Second, the impact of the main quality fluctuation of titanium dioxide on the coating
Titanium dioxide as a white pigment of the coating, its whiteness is very important, is one of the key quality indicators of the coating requirements, titanium dioxide whiteness is poor, will directly affect the appearance of the coating film. The main factor affecting the whiteness of titanium dioxide is the type of harmful impurities, because titanium dioxide is very sensitive to impurities, especially rutile titanium dioxide.
Therefore, even trace impurities will have a significant impact on the whiteness of titanium dioxide. The whiteness of titanium dioxide produced by the chlorination process is often better than that produced by the sulfuric acid process, because the raw material titanium tetrachloride used in the chlorination process to produce titanium dioxide has been distilled and purified, and the impurity content of the raw materials used in the sulfuric acid process is high, and the impurities can only be removed by washing and bleaching and other process technologies.
2 Hiding power
The hiding force is the surface area of the coated object per square centimeter, when it is completely covered, the sam
Characteristics of titanium dioxide used in paper industryTime of issue : 2023- 05-27
Papermaking is the third largest user of titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is generally not used in low-grade paper due to the consideration of production costs, mainly using porcelain clay, talcum powder, calcium carbonate, etc., but they will reduce the strength of the paper and increase the weight of the paper. Decorative paper, Bible paper and banknotes (such as: dictionaries, pictorials, magazine covers, computers, banknotes, copiers and decorative paper, etc.) must use titanium dioxide, the use of titanium dioxide paper, good whiteness, high strength, glossy, thin and smooth, printing does not penetrate, under the same conditions opacity than calcium carbonate, talc 10 times higher, weight can also be reduced by 15% ~ 30%.
Decorative paper, also known as titanium paper, is mainly used as raw materials for making furniture, flooring, wallpaper, etc. For paper with anti-aging requirements, rutile must be used; More rutile is used in high-ash paper, which must use rutile because the hiding power of anatase titanium dioxide does not meet the requirements. Anatase titanium dioxide are used in low ash paper, such as Bible paper and banknotes, etc., Bible paper requires good opacity of paper, generally using anatase titanium dioxide can be met; Mint paper also requires good opacity, mainly using anatase type. In China, the amount of titanium dioxide used in decorative paper is much higher than that of the other two varieties, and this situation is determined by China's consumption level. Due to the large demand for house decoration and high-end furniture, the amount of decorative paper has gradually increased; Due to the use of titanium white as raw material, the cost of Bible paper is much higher than that of ordinary paper, in view of the domestic consumption level, the market for Bible paper is very limited; The manufacture and use of mint paper is controlled by the state, and the dosage is relatively stable and will not affect the titanium dioxide market. According to incomplete estimates, the domestic titanium dioxide used for decorative paper exceeds 30,000 tons per year. The amount of titanium dioxide in decorative paper is 20~40%, and the amount of titanium dioxide in other paper is 1~5%. As traditional cultural paper production plants have transformed into the production of decorative paper, the output of decorative paper has increased rapidly, and the price of decorative paper has shown a downward trend in recent years.
Regardless of the type of paper (base paper), the production process is the same:
Rutile is used for weather-resistant, high-ash paper, anatase type is used for paper, low ash content paper with low weather requirements, and the main reason for determining which titanium dioxide is used by paper mills is the cost of papermaking, that is, the cost performance of titanium dioxide. Since the cost ratio of titanium dioxide in papermaking is as high as 30~50%, so the paper mill can be said to be careful about the choice of titanium dioxide in the case of meeting user requirements, and can use anatase type never use rutile. The quality requirements of the paper industry for titanium dioxide, in order of importance, are:
1) Hiding power (opacity): the ability of paper containing the same titanium dioxide to cover the base color, this indicator determines the cost performance of titanium white. Simply put, titanium dioxide with high hiding power is generally high in price, but the amount of use is small, so the cost of titanium dioxide per ton of paper may be lower; Titanium dioxide with low hiding power, although the price is low, but the amount is large, resulting in an increase in the cost of titanium dioxide per ton of paper;
2) Whiteness: The whiteness of titanium white determines the appearance of the paper after molding;
The difference between rutile titanium dioxide and anatase titanium dioxide
1) Relative density
Among the commonly used white pigments, titanium dioxide has the smallest relative density, and among white pigments of the same quality, titanium dioxide has the largest surface area and the highest pigment volume.
2) Melting point and boiling point
Since the anatase type transforms to rutile at high temperatures, the melting and boiling points of anatase titanium dioxide are practically non-existent. Only rutile titanium dioxide has melting point and boiling point, rutile titanium dioxide melting point is 1850 °C, melting point in air is (1830±15) °C, melting point in oxygen is 1879 °C, melting point is related to the purity of titanium dioxide. The boiling point of rutile titanium dioxide is (3200±300) °C, and titanium dioxide is slightly volatile at this high temperature.
3) Dielectric constant
Due to the high dielectric constant of titanium dioxide, it has excellent electrical properties. When determining certain physical propertie
Quality control of titanium dioxideTime of issue : 2023- 05-25
There are two production processes for the manufacture of titanium dioxide: sulfuric acid method and chlorination method. Rutile titanium dioxide and anatase titanium dioxide can be produced by either process.
The sulfuric acid method is to dissolve titanium-containing mineral sands in sulfuric acid to produce a solution of titanium and sulfates of titanium and other metals. It then goes through a series of steps, including chemical reduction, purification, precipitation, washing, and combustion. Then the titanium dioxide intermediate is obtained. Most of the domestic titanium dioxide plants use this process to produce, which is easy to pollute the environment, and the chlorination method includes two high-temperature anhydrous vapor phase reactions. Titanium ore and chlorine react under reducing conditions to generate titanium tetrachloride and metal chloride impurities, after the impurities are removed. High-purity titanium tetrachloride is oxidized at high temperatures to form a very bright titanium dioxide intermediate. This process produces high-quality products and is environmentally friendly, but the cost is relatively high.
Intermediates are clusters of pigment particles of titanium dioxide crystals, which must be dispersed (grinded) and modified by various wet processing methods. Hydrated oxides including silicon, aluminum or zinc are coated on the surface of the pigment particles. Individual oxide hydrate treatments or combinations of different treatments can also be used to obtain the best performance for specific applications.
An important problem in the manufacture of titanium dioxide is the supply of titanium ore, although the reserves of titanium are listed in the top ten elements, but it is widely distributed in nature at low concentrations, and it is necessary to improve the efficiency of mining and mineral processing operations to meet the economic requirements of manufacturing titanium dioxide.
People's awareness of green environmental protection and the continuous improvement of natural resource protection have made the titanium dioxide industry increasingly under increasing pressure on pollution control and titanium ore procurement in production processes. Manufacturing costs have climbed significantly higher than before.
However, under the condition that the domestic economic situation is not optimistic, the downstream main markets of titanium dioxide (real estate, large-scale industrial projects, etc.) have shrunk, resulting in a continuous decline in demand for titanium dioxide, and leading to a unilateral decline in prices; The recovery of international demand has benefited from the export of titanium dioxide, which has increased to a certain extent, but it is still difficult to change the reality of oversupply.
So, a price war was waged in the domestic market.
The sales of the titanium dioxide industry are facing great competitive pressure.
Under the influence of manufacturing costs and market competition factors, titanium dioxide manufacturers must find ways to reduce the ex-factory cost of products in order to survive. However, in principle, workers' wages and benefits are slowly increased rather than slowly reduced, and the reduction of natural production costs mainly depends on technological innovation.
Due to the adjustment of technology and process, the titanium dioxide coating treatment process, the amount of coating raw materials and additives have changed. Unconsciously, the penetration of substances that have a catalytic effect on the coating film-forming reaction makes the titanium dioxide that originally had little effect on the gloss of the physical matting agent powder coating now has a greater impact.
Different manufacturers and models of titanium dioxide have a very different effect on the gloss of physical matting agent powder coating. For our powder engineers, choose the manufacturer and model of titanium dioxide until the batch. This has become one of the considerations in the formulation of physical matting agent powder coatings. In addition, even some illegal manufacturers or traders fraudulently infiltrate part of the filler into the titanium dioxide, or infiltrate part of the anatase titanium dioxide into the rutile titanium dioxide and then sell it, deceiving consumers.
The main indicators of its control are: the mass number of TiO2 parts, the mass part of the volatile at 105 °C, the mass part of the water-soluble matter, the mass part of the sieve residue (45μm), the color, scattering force, oil absorption, the resistivity of the extract, etc.
The application characteristics of various industries are different, the requirements for titanium dioxide are not exactly the same, and the inspection methods will be different.
The particle size distribution of titanium dioxide in plastics industry affects the key indexesTime of issue : 2023- 05-24
In recent years, the plastic industry and titanium dioxide can be described as inseparable. Among the more than 500 titanium dioxide grades in the world, more than 50 are exclusive to plastics, and the average annual growth rate of up to 6% also makes the plastic industry the fastest growing field using titanium dioxide, and "wins" the second largest user of titanium dioxide. Where there is a material application, there are naturally matching indicators, parameter considerations, particle size distribution and particle shape significantly affect the key indicators of titanium dioxide for plastics. The particle size of titanium dioxide for plastics is just within the range of laser particle size analyzer, so for the application of titanium dioxide in the plastic industry, the industry may wish to pay more attention.
As we all know, the scientific name of titanium dioxide is titanium dioxide, with excellent white performance, high hiding power and high achromatic power, is widely used in ink, paper, coatings, paints and other industries, enjoying the reputation of "white king", which is an important reason for the application of titanium dioxide in plastic products, that is, titanium dioxide can determine the appearance of light or white plastic products. Of course, titanium dioxide has many other benefits for plastics, such as improving the heat, light and weather resistance of plastic products, protecting plastic products from UV light, and improving the mechanical and electrical properties of plastic products. Almost all thermosetting and thermoplastic plastics will use titanium dioxide, they can be mixed with resin dry powder, can also be mixed with plasticizers containing liquid, the dosage is generally about 3-5%, polyolefins (mainly low-density polyethylene), polystyrene, ABS, polyvinyl chloride, etc.
In the plastic industry, there are four main indicators to measure the quality of titanium dioxide - hiding power, dispersion, weather resistance and whiteness. The better the hiding power of titanium white, the lighter and thinner the plastic products produced; The dispersion affects the production cost of plastic products, the better the dispersion of titanium dioxide, the higher the smoothness and brightness of plastic products; Titanium dioxide with good weather resistance is indispensable for plastic products and plastic doors and windows used outdoors.
The last big indicator is whiteness, the so-called whiteness refers to the degree of distance from the ideal white. The factors affecting the whiteness of titanium dioxide are mainly as follows. The first point is impurities, in the titanium dioxide process, especially the sulfuric acid titanium dioxide process, most of the operation is to remove impurities in the product, because impurities seriously affect the application performance of titanium dioxide, especially whiteness. Color-developing metal oxide impurities can affect whiteness at very low content, these elements are iron, manganese, chromium, copper, etc., these impurities themselves have color, in the white titanium dioxide is very easy to color.
The second point is the distribution of particle size and particle size, which mainly affects its whiteness through the reflection and scattering of light by titanium dioxide particles. The smaller the particle size of titanium dioxide, the higher the whiteness value, which is mainly due to the smaller the particle size of titanium dioxide, the increase of surface area, and the enhancement of light reflection and diffuse reflection. According to the characteristics of light waves, when the particle size of the pigment particles is less than half of the light wave, the maximum scattering of the color light of the wavelength can be obtained, after analysis, the best particle size for the wavelength blue light scattering is about 0.2 μm, and the maximum particle size of the longer wavelength red light scattering is about 0.35 μm, therefore, the scattered light of the small particle size of titanium dioxide is blue phase, and the transmitted light is blue complementary color red and yellow phase, on the contrary, the scattered light of large particle size titanium dioxide is red phase, and the transmitted light is blue phase. Usually the particle size of titanium dioxide for coatings is 0.2~0.4μm, while most plastics use titanium dioxide particle size is finer, particle size is 0.15~0.3μm, because this can obtain a blue background phase, most of the resins with yellow phase or easy to yellowing resin has a shielding effect.
In addition, particle shape, titanium content, and coating agent have a certain influence on the whiteness of titanium dioxide. Among them, the influence of particle shape on whiteness is relatively small, in general, the whiteness of layered titanium dioxide is slightly lower, and the whiteness of spherical and rod-shaped is slightly higher. The increase of titanium dioxide content, titanium dioxide whiteness v
Performance requirements of titanium dioxide for plastic type materialsTime of issue : 2023- 05-22
1. Particle and particle size distribution of titanium dioxide
The particle size requirements of titanium dioxide used in plastic profiles are much finer than those used in other fields. Usually coatings and other industries require a particle size of 0.2-0.4 microns, and the particle size of titanium dioxide of plastic profiles is required to be 0.15-0.3 microns, so that the blue bottom phase can be obtained, because in the blue bottom phase, from the principle of vision and pigment colorimetry, it will feel whiter.From the process of plastic profiles, this can play a role in shading the light yellow of resin raw materials and the yellow of other raw materials , unconventional large particles are almost non-existent. Titanium dioxide particles are in the optimal size range, and incident light in the visible spectrum can be scattered most efficiently.
2. The hiding power of titanium dioxide
The hiding power of titanium dioxide is expressed in opacity in the profile industry. The higher the opacity of titanium dioxide, the higher the whiteness of the plastic profile after coloring, and the hiding power of titanium dioxide is mainly affected by the particle size distribution, particle size and crystal form of the pigment.
3. Dispersion of titanium dioxide
The dispersion of titanium dioxide has a great influence on the production of plastic profiles, and is an important application performance index in the plastic profile industry. The profile obtained by titanium dioxide with good dispersion has uniform appearance color, no yellowing, and good whiteness. The main factors affecting the dispersion of titanium dioxide are: particle size distribution, specific surface area, surface potential, pH value, etc.
The qualitative characterization method of titanium dioxide dispersion is the electron microscope method, and the quantitative method is generally the particle size distributor measurement method, and now most of the R & D and production units of the dispersion mainly use application tests to verify its effect, so as to obtain the advantages and disadvantages of dispersion.
4. Optical properties of titanium dioxide
Plastic profiles of various substrates, optical performance indicators are mainly the brightness and hue of titanium dioxide, the main source of these two indicators is the instrument method measurement of lab test results.
The Sustainable Development of China's Titanium IndustryTime of issue : 2023- 05-20
The titanium industry in China is a rapidly developing industry and has become the world's largest production base for the titanium industry. In recent years, with the rapid development of the Chinese economy, the titanium industry in China has also been continuously developing and growing. Meanwhile, due to the continuous improvement of the domestic economic environment, the market size of the domestic titanium industry is also expanding.
According to the analysis of the competition status and strategic consulting research report of China's high-strength and tough titanium alloy industry from 2023 to 2029 released by Market Research Online, the market size of China's titanium industry reached 64.61 billion yuan in 2015, 71.52 billion yuan in 2016, 80.71 billion yuan in 2017, 91.94 billion yuan in 2018, and 103.39 billion yuan in 2019. It can be seen that the market size of China's titanium industry has been expanding in recent years, and it is expected that the market size of China's titanium industry will reach 114.58 billion yuan by 2020.
The titanium industry will usher in a more stable development trend in the future. On the one hand, with the development of China's economy, the government's support is also continuously increasing, with a focus on supporting the titanium industry and creating a favorable development environment; On the other hand, the technological level and product quality of China's titanium industry are constantly improving, providing customers with higher quality products and making the development of the titanium industry more stable.
In the future, the Chinese titanium industry will continue to expand its market with technology and quality, accelerate transformation and upgrading, continuously improve technology and processes, explore new application fields, expand product markets, and maintain stable development of the industry to meet the growing demand for titanium products in society.
In short, the market size of China's titanium industry is constantly expanding, and the future development trend will also remain stable. The government will provide greater support to the titanium industry, which will focus on technology and quality, accelerate transformation and upgrading, expand new application fields, meet the growing demand for titanium products in society, and maintain stable development of the industry.
Why are now decorating with inorganic paintTime of issue : 2023- 04-07
When it comes to organic and inorganic, many owners are a little dizzy, what is inorganic coatings? How can coatings still be divided into organic and inorganic? In fact, inorganic coatings have not emerged in recent years, as early as thousands of years ago in the western region of China, inorganic coatings have been applied to painting and architectural decoration, and have been well preserved.
So, what are inorganic coatings? Coatings with inorganic materials as the main binder are the abbreviation of all-inorganic mineral coatings. As an inorganic mineral coating, environmental protection is its core advantage, whether from the product itself or the production process, the impact on the environment and human body is minimal. Compared with ordinary latex paint, inorganic coating has the characteristics of weather resistance, non-combustible, breathable, free of bactericides, and ultra-low VOC. After reading the concept of inorganic coatings, many people must have begun to tend to choose inorganic coatings. After all, in home improvement, the first problem encountered is decoration pollution, and inorganic coatings can effectively avoid decoration pollution due to their own natural mineral raw materials, so they are loved by domestic and foreign markets. So, what are the properties of inorganic coatings that cannot be refused?
The first is its health properties. The primary consideration for home safety is whether toxic gases will be emitted. You know, after the renovation, seven out of every ten families are deeply poisoned by formaldehyde. According to statistics, the number of deaths caused by indoor air pollution in China has reached 111,000 every year. Inorganic coatings, precisely can solve this problem well, because they are pure natural minerals, do not contain organic substances, so they will not release formaldehyde and other odors, just like being in a natural mountain forest, no need to worry about the pollution caused by decoration.
The second is the feature of security. Many owners feel that they need to change to a safer entrance door to prevent theft and other unsafe things from happening. But in the modern rule of law society, the most dangerous is not brought from the outside, but from the inside, such as fire prevention. Inorganic coatings have A1 grade fire performance, even at 1200°C high temperature, they will not peel, melt and burn, and will not smoke, which can maximize the life safety of family members. Even if a fire breaks out due to the outside, it will not be possible to escape because of the huge smoke generated.
And in terms of decoration, the degree of adhesion is high, the adhesion is more, and there is no need to worry about problems such as falling off in the later stage. In addition to fireproof, its own waterproof and moisture-proof performance is also incomparable with other traditional coatings, and has breathability, does not need to use antifungal agents to antibacterial, to achieve the effect of mildew and moisture, and most common latex paint film-forming is not breathable, stuffy, easy to return moisture and mold. In the current decoration, the advantages of inorganic coatings have gradually emerged, and will inevitably become mainstream in the near future, and its concept of environmental protection, green, safety and health will also penetrate into the hearts of every owner.
1. Can inorganic paint be brushed directly on the latex paint wall?
Some friends said that their home is a hardcover room, and when they take the room, the wall has been brushed with latex paint, and the latex paint wall is easy to crack and mold, so I want to change the inorganic paint. But in fact, inorganic paint can not be directly brushed on the wall of latex paint, otherwise it will produce peeling phenomenon, because the shrinkage of inorganic paint is large, and the adhesion of ordinary latex paint is not enough to leave the wall. For the renovation of the old wall, the old putty should be shoveled and re-approved putty construction.
2. Are there any requirements for inorganic coatings for the base layer?
Inorganic coatings on films, plastic barrels, extruded products containing mold release agents adhere poorly, including smooth surface artificial stone, gypsum lines, if artificial stone is recommended to protect well do not spray, if you want gypsum line spraying color consistent with the wall, you can use fine sandpaper to first sanding the surface of the gypsum line and then spraying, or after spraying there is peeling and then sanding repair the local area.
3. Should inorganic coatings be diluted with water?
When applying inorganic coatings over a large area, there is no need to dilute them with water. For the dark angle treatment, the primer should be diluted with 30% water, and the topcoat should be diluted with 20% water and stirred well with a machine before use, and the dark corner cannot be thickly coated, otherwise it is easy to crack.
The difference between water-based and oil-based paintsTime of issue : 2023- 04-05
Water-based paint is a paint that uses water as a diluent, does not contain organic solvents, does not contain benzene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, free TDI toxic heavy metals, non-toxic and non-irritating odor, harmless to the human body, does not pollute the environment, can be used in: wood, metal, plastic, glass, building surface and other materials. Then the following small series will explain the difference, differentiation method, contrast, characteristics of water-based paint and advantages in decoration.
A feature of high hardness waterborne paint, it is manufactured with advanced technologies such as waterborne acrylic or waterborne polyurethane systems, and the hardness is comparable to H-grade pencils. But oil-based paint is the opposite, and the paint applied to it has a relatively poor hardness;
2. Feel and fullness
You can also distinguish between water-based and oily from the feel, because the water-based paint uses hand wax technology, which will be particularly full and comfortable to the touch, but when you touch the oil-based paint, you will feel that the hand feeling is not good;
3. Wear-resistant, yellowing resistant and durable
Because of the use of film-forming and self-crosslinking technology, the surface of water-based paint has the characteristics of hardness, wear resistance, flexibility, etc., and long-term use will not appear yellowing, but oil-based paint is not as wear-resistant as water-based paint, and the effect is not so good.
How to distinguish between water-based paint and oil-based paint
1. Smell the smell
To distinguish between water-based or oily, first start from its smell, and water-based paint naturally has no taste, and in water-based paint does not contain benzene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, and oily on the contrary, it contains the above substances, so its smell is very irritating, a smell to know;
2. Exclusion method
The use of the elimination method can also make you choose the paint you need faster, for example, solid wood, solid wood veneer furniture is generally water-based, if it is board furniture, oil-based paint is mostly used;
3. Ask for evidence
"Product Instruction Manual" and "Test Report" are evidence of the difference between watery and oily, you can ask to check it when purchasing, if it is water-based paint, it will generally be marked on the coating column.
The performance of coatings is mainly determined by three partsTime of issue : 2023- 04-03
The performance of coatings is mainly determined by three parts: paint film performance, construction performance, and environmental performance.
What determines the performance of coatings?Time of issue : 2023- 03-31
Definition of paint The so-called coating is a substance that has fluidity, is coated on the surface of the object to form a thin coating film, drying, curing, firmly bonded to the surface of the object, plays a role in protecting the object and increasing aesthetics and other special functions, constituting a continuous coating film. As the definition says, the role of paint is: protective, aesthetic, special role.
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